An'anaviy retseptlar

Italiya restoranida valyuta sifatida ishlatiladigan meva va sabzavotlar

Italiya restoranida valyuta sifatida ishlatiladigan meva va sabzavotlar

Kechki ovqat, Italiya, Florensiya, restoranida ovqat va uy -ro'zg'or buyumlari bilan almashadilar

Pomidor qutisini yangi plastinka spagetti bilan almashtirish qanday tovush beradi? Restoranda ovqatlanish uchun almashish kimgadir g'alati tuyulishi mumkin, biroq Italiyaning Florensiyadagi Toskana restoranining L'è Maiala xo'jayini boshqacha bo'lishini so'raydi.

L'è Maiala xaridorlarga mahsulot, sharob yoki boshqa uy -ro'zg'or buyumlari bilan almashish imkonini beradi. Buning evaziga oshpazlar o'zlari olgan yeguliklarni boshqa mahalliy mahsulotlar bilan birga tayyorlab, oshxonalarga sovg'a qilishadi, deb xabar beradi Reuters.

L'è Maiala -da, egasi Donella Faggioli Toskana urf -odatlariga sodiq qolishga, cho'chqa sosli Toskana "pici" makaronini tayyorlashga e'tibor qaratadi.

Restoran sentyabr oyining oxirida Florensiyada ochilgan bo'lib, hozirgi iqtisodiy qiyinchiliklarga qaramay, xaridorlarga ovqat beradi.

"Biz restoran ochishga qaror qildik, inqirozga qaramay tashqariga chiqishni yaxshi ko'radiganlar uchun yig'ilish joyi. Ko'pchilik kechqurun kechki ovqatga chiqa olmaydi va oyning oxirigacha pul topolmaydi. Shunday qilib. Biz eski barter tizimiga qaytishga qaror qildik ", dedi xo'jayin Donella Faggioli Reuters agentligiga.

Ishonasizmi yoki yo'qmi, so'nggi yillarda boshqa korxonalarda barter tizimlari ustunlik qilmoqda. Xalqaro O'zaro Savdo Assotsiatsiyasining ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, 2011 yilda butun dunyo bo'ylab 400,000 dan ortiq kompaniyalar 12 milliard dollarlik barterli mulklardan daromad olishgan.

Tayler Shteyn - The Daily Meal jurnalining kichik yozuvchisi. Uni Twitter -da kuzatib boring @TaylerSteinTDM ..


7 Meksikaning an'anaviy meva va sabzavotlari

Bahor nihoyat bizning ostonamizda, bog'dorchilik haqida o'ylashni boshlash vaqti keldi! Yangi mahsulotlar bilan pishirishdan yaxshiroq narsa yo'q.

Bu sabzavotlarning ba'zilari siz orqa hovlisida o'sishi mumkin bo'ladi (qaerda yashayotganingizga qarab!), Boshqalar uchun esa siz oziq -ovqat do'konida suzishingiz kerak bo'ladi. Quyidagi Meksika meva va sabzavotlari tortillalar, salsalar va ajoyib shirinliklar kabi mazali Meksika taomlarini tashkil qiladi. Misr, qovoq va kartoshka odatda taomning asosiy qismi bo'lib xizmat qilsa -da, an'anaviy bo'lib, boshqalari, masalan, pomidor, mango va qalampir ta'mni yaxshilaydi va har qanday taomga bir oz olov qo'shadi.

Makkajo'xori: Meksikadagi asosiy kraxmal, makkajo'xori har xil an'anaviy taomlarning asosini tashkil qiladi. Makkajo'xori yangi iste'mol qilinishi mumkin, lekin uni quritib xamir uchun ham ishlatish mumkin. Meksikada makkajo'xori eyishning eng mashhur usuli tortilla shaklida.

Tomatillo: Bu mevalarni qovurish, qaynatish yoki bug'lash mumkin. Ular qalqonsimon deb nomlangan qog'ozga o'xshash po'stloq ichida o'sadi. Meva yeyishga tayyor bo'lgach, piyozni ochish mumkin va butun mevani qutulish mumkin. Pomidorlar Meksika yashil soslarining asosiy tarkibiy qismidir. Ularning ta'mi och yashil rangga ega.

Qovoq: Miloddan avvalgi 8000 yil atrofida etishtirilgan qovoq uzoq vaqt davomida Meksikaning parhezining asosiy qismi bo'lgan. Chayote deb nomlangan meksikalik gurjana yozgi qovoqqa o'xshab pishiriladi va S vitaminining ajoyib manbai hisoblanadi, lekin u qattiq tuziligi tufayli kamdan -kam xom iste'mol qilinadi, lekin uni limon yoki ohak bilan marinadlab, salsa va salatlarga qo'shish mumkin.

Kartoshka: Meksikadagi kartoshka shtatlardagidek tayyorlanadi. Ularni maydalash, pishirish va chuqur qovurish mumkin. Har xil usulda va har xil idishlarda ishlatiladi, ular Meksika oshxonasida keng tarqalgan sabzavot.

Mango: Ataulfo ​​mangosi, shuningdek shampan mangosi sifatida ham tanilgan, meksikaning o'ziga xos mangosidir. Odatda AQSh do'konlarida topiladigan mangodan kichikroq, meva silliq, tolasiz tuzilishga ega va juda shirin. Mangolar salsa, shirinliklarda juda yaxshi va ajoyib atirlar tayyorlaydilar!

Papaya: Meksika va Markaziy Amerikada tug'ilgan papayalar daraxtlardan o'sadi va terilari kehribardan to'q sariq rangga aylanganda pishadi. Ular salatlar, quadadillalar va shirinliklarda juda yaxshi.

Qalampir: Meksikaning mashhur qalampiri - poblano qalampiri. Bu Meksikada eng ko'p o'stiriladigan qalampirlardan biridir va har xil maqsadlarda ishlatiladi. U quritilishi, to'ldirilishi, qovurilishi yoki mol sousida xizmat qilishi mumkin.

Bu ro'yxat faqat Meksikaning ko'plab klassik meva va sabzavotlarini o'z ichiga oladi. Agar siz ko'proq Meksika taomlari va madaniyatini boshdan kechirmoqchi bo'lsangiz, Xolden, Spenser, Vebster yoki Ware MAdagi Mexicali Fresh Mex Grill bilan bog'laning yoki tashrif buyuring. Yoki Stonington va Janubiy Vindzordagi kompyuter tomografiya joylariga keling.


Qadimgi Yunoniston

Qadimgi Yunonistonda ziravorlar ishlatilganligi haqidagi dastlabki dalillar miloddan avvalgi XIII va XIII asrlarga tegishli bronza davri planshetlarida topilgan bo'lib, ularda koriander ( Coriandrum sativum L)., Safsar ( Carthamus tinctorius ) va za'faron ( Crocus sativus ) (Arnott, 1996). Eng keng tarqalgan va mahalliy etishtirilgan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlariga zaytun, don (bug'doy va arpa), uzum va dukkakli ekinlar kiradi. Yunonlar dengizda yashaydigan xalq bo'lganligi sababli, savdo butun mintaqada keng tarqalgan edi amfora, tashish va saqlash uchun ishlatiladigan katta ko'zalarda dukkakli eman, yong'oq, zanjabil qoldiqlari borligi aniqlandi. Zingiber officinale ), yalpiz ( Mentha ), bibariya ( Rosmarinus officinalis ), kekik ( Timus vulgaris ), oregano ( Origanum vulgar ) va adaçayı ( Salvia officinalis ). Bunday topilmalar savdo -sotiq juda keng bo'lganligini ko'rsatadi, chunki bu botaniklarning ba'zilari Yunonistonda emas (Foley va boshqalar, 2012).

Arxeologik dalillarga qo'shimcha ravishda, biz qadimgi oziq -ovqat mualliflari orqali turli xil lazzatlar va zamonlarning tuzilishini aniq bilishimiz mumkin. Sirakuzadan yoki Geladan kelgan sitsiliyalik yunon Arxestrat (miloddan avvalgi IV asr) O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab sayohat qilib, mahalliy retseptlarni kulgili she'rga jamlagan. Hedifatiya . "Hashamatli hayot" deb tarjima qilingan she'rida Arxestrat eng yaxshi ovqatlarni qaerdan topish mumkinligi haqida o'z tavsiyalarini beradi va "qadimiy yunon oshxonasining sirlarini" ochib beradi, bu xuddi tabloidga o'xshaydi (Tsolakidou, 2013, 1 -band). . "Oshxona uchun amaliy maslahatlardan tashqari, uning kitobi o'quvchini Gomer va Aflotondagi mo''tadil ta'limotlarga e'tibor bermaslikka va cheksiz hashamatli hayot kechirishga undagan she'r sifatida yozilgan provokatsiya edi" (J. Pol Getti muzeyi) , 2013 yil, 2 -band).

Biroq, bu me'yor o'zining tejamkorligi va soddaligi bilan mashhur bo'lgan yunon oshxonasiga juda boy edi. Ko'pgina qadimgi yunonlar vegetarianizm bilan shug'ullanishgan va Rim imperiyasi Yunoniston qit'asi bo'ylab (mil. Av. 27-1453 yillar) kengayganidan keyingina, rimliklarning mashhur hashamati an'anaviy yunon oshxona manzarasini o'zgartira boshladi.

Odatda, nonushta yoki akratismós Qadimgi Yunonistonda anjir yoki zaytun bilan aralashtirilgan suyultirilgan sharobga solingan qattiq arpa noni yoki bug'doy uni, zaytun moyi, asal va qatiq sutdan tayyorlangan qovurilgan xamir turidan iborat bo'lgan. Kunduzgi ovqat, chaqirdi Ariston (tsitos) - bu non va zaytun moyidan, ba'zida yangi yoki quritilgan mevalardan iborat engil taom. Kechki ovqatdan oldin yeyilgan atirlar chaqirildi gepsisma (shtima). Kechki ovqat yoki deipnon (δεῖπνóν)-bu kunning eng katta taomidir, unga non, mahalliy yoki uyda etishtirilgan sabzavotlar, tuxum, baliq, pishloq yoki baklagiller kiradi (Tsolakidou, 2013). Pishloq, anjir yoki zaytun ustiga tomizilgan asaldan iborat shirinlik nisbatan sodda edi (Kotsiris, 2020). Sharobni hamma erkaklar suyultirgan holda iste'mol qilishgan, chunki ayollarga uni ichish taqiqlangan. Erkaklar va ayollar ovqatlarini alohida -alohida eyishdi, qul odamlar esa hammadan keyin ovqatlanishdi. Ovqat idishlari bo'lmaganligi sababli, oziq -ovqat qo'l bilan ishlov berildi.


Bizga nemis kartoshkasidan tayyorlangan salat haqida hamma narsa yoqadi (yorqin sirka, yangi o'tlar, ozgina issiqlik) - lekin uni tutunli, qovurilgan va panjara qiling.

Siz tayyorlamoqchi bo'lgan retseptlar. Ovqat pishirish bo'yicha maslahatlar ishlaydi. Siz ishonadigan restoran tavsiyalari.

© 2021 Konde Nast. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Ushbu saytdan foydalanish bizning Foydalanuvchi shartnomasi va Maxfiylik siyosati, Cookie bayonoti va Kaliforniya maxfiylik huquqlarining qabul qilinishini bildiradi. Yoqimli ishtaha sotuvchilarning bir qismi bizning saytimiz orqali sotuvchilar bilan hamkorlik sheriklik doirasida sotib olingan mahsulotlardan daromad olishi mumkin. Bu saytdagi materiallarni qayta yozish, tarqatish, uzatish, keshlash yoki boshqa usulda ishlatish mumkin emas, faqat Condé Nastning yozma ruxsatisiz. Reklama tanlovlari


Rangli qovurilgan sabzavotlar

Oshpaz Asha Gomes qovurilgan sabzavotlar va mevalarning rang -barang laganini yaxshi ko'radi. O'zini ishlab chiqaruvchi deb atagan Gomes, mahsulotlar bo'limi va dehqonlar bozorida boy ranglar va to'qimalarga qoyil qolishni yaxshi ko'radi. Bu retsept uning sevimli mahsulotlarini birlashtiradi, lekin siz o'zingizning xohishingizga ko'ra idishni, shuningdek ziravorlarni sozlashingiz mumkin.

Saqlash eslatmalari: Qolgan narsalarni muzlatgichda 4 kungacha saqlash mumkin.

Qaerdan sotib olish mumkin: Qora xantal urug'ini Hindiston bozorlarida, ko'plab Pan-Osiyo supermarketlarida yoki Internetda topish mumkin.

Porsiyalar:

Retseptni tuzayotganda, pishirish vaqti va harorati, idishning kattaligi va ziravorlar ta'sir qilishi mumkinligini yodda tuting, shuning uchun moslang. Shuningdek, ko'rsatmalarda ko'rsatilgan miqdorlar ingredientlar miqdoriga kiritilgan o'zgarishlarni aks ettirmaydi.

Tarkibi
Yo'nalishlar

Pechning yuqori, o'rtasi va pastki qismiga uchta tokchani joylashtiring va 400 darajaga oldindan qizdiring. Uchta katta, qirrali pishirish varag'ini pergament qog'oz bilan tekislang va ular bo'ylab meva va sabzavotlarni yoying. (Iloji bo'lsa, barcha ingredientlarni bir qatlamda saqlang.)

Zaytun moyini to'kib tashlang, tuz, shakar, kimyon urug'i va xantal urug'ini seping, agar hamma narsaga teng taqsimlansa. 25 dan 35 minutgacha, yoki shirin kartoshka va lavlagi yumshoq bo'lguncha qovuring.

Katta stolning bir chetiga yunon yogurtini surting. Lavlagi qatiqqa qo'ying va qolgan meva va sabzavotlarni idishga joylashtiring. Asal bilan sug'orib, iliq yoki xona haroratida xizmat qiling.


Onalar kuni: Bay Area restoranining oshpazlari va oshxona kitobi mualliflari nima eyishni xohlashadi

San-Frantsiskodagi oshpaz, restavrator va ikki farzandning onasi sifatida, Sara Rich bayramni belgilash uchun yakshanba kuni bo'lib o'tgan, uzoq davom etadigan Onalar kunini nishonlashni unchalik yoqtirmaydi.

Lekin ular hali ham o'ziga xosdir. Bir yil, uning eri va Rich Table egasi Evan, ertalabki soat 7:30 da, Michelin yulduzli restoraniga borishdan oldin, yotog'ining yonida mehr bilan qilingan mimozani qo'yishdi.

O'tgan yili u Sara ’ ning sevimli dim sumini nonushta uchun buyurdi. 7 yoshli Niko hovlidan yovvoyi gullarni yirtib tashlagan, 10 yoshli Van esa oshpaz shlyapali Lego Minifigure xonimidan ustun kelgan. Ular hamma narsani laganda ustiga yig'ib yotoqxonaga olib ketishdi.

Men yotoqda nonushta qilish an'anasini juda yaxshi ko'raman, - deydi Sara. Oshxonada hamma narsani bir joyga to'plaganini eshitib, qahvani kerakli miqdordagi sut bilan olib, menga ertalab tanaffus berdi. ”

Sara Rich-San-Frantsiskodagi Rich Table va RT Rotisserie-ning bosh oshpazi va hammuallifi. (Sara Rich izni bilan)

Nonushta uchun kichkina summa yoki tushlik uchun PB & ampJ-bolaga tayyor bo'ladimi, onamga ovqat pishirish va xizmat qilish-bu men seni yaxshi ko'raman. ” Agar so'ralsa, hatto tirikchilik uchun ovqat pishiradigan onalar ham sizga nimani xohlashlarini aytib berishadi. , va ular hatto retseptlar bilan ta'minlaydilar: quritilgan o'rikli Salsa Verde bilan Brunch-markazli shirin kartoshka kreplari va boylikdan chiqqan Brokkoli Kaliforniya taomlari kitobi, “Rich jadvali, ”. Yoki yozgi murabbo bilan pivo bilan ishlangan belgiyalik gofretlar yoki Santa Barbara shveytsariya va pırasa bilan kvish Eat Drink Garden blogger va usta bog'bon Valeri Rays.

Siz nima tayyorlasangiz ham, onalarga shuni ko'rsatmoqchimizki, biz ularni sut bilan mukammal miqdorda qahva kabi olib, ularga dam olish kunini beramiz.

Belgiyaning Born shahrida buvisi bilan bog'dorchilik va meva-sabzavot yig'ib o'sgan Rays uchun murabbo bilan o'ralgan gofretlar alohida ajralib turadi.

“Qizlarim menga gofret kabi shirin narsalarni yoqtirishini bilishadi, lekin ularga hech qachon buyurtma bermasliklari mumkin, - deydi Rays, qizlari 17 va 15 yoshda. “ Zo'r dunyoda ular menga ham mexnat olib berishar edi. to'g'rimi? ”

Bu haqda gapirganda, katta yoshli bolalar Rays va "8220" Yashash hayoti: bog'dan oziq -ovqat va ichimliklar "va" Prospect Park Books ", $ 35) dan" Campari & amp "mandarinini osonlikcha qamchilashlari mumkin edi. Ovqat pishirish kitobi, birinchi navbatda, mavsumga qarab tuzilgan bo'lib, unda dukkakli taomlar yoki arpabodiyonli dukkakli no'xat sho'rvasi kabi nonushta retseptlari bilan bir qatorda bog'dorchilik bo'yicha maslahatlar mavjud. Shuningdek, Rays ’s dasturxoniga tez-tez tashrif buyuradigan sovrindor sommelier va sharob ishlab chiqaruvchi Rajat Parrdan sharob takliflari mavjud.

Valeriy Raysning debyut kitobi blogger va usta bog'bon Santa Barbara turmush tarzidan ilhomlangan kokteyllar va taomlar bilan to'ldirilgan. (Gemma va Endryu Ingalls)

Gruyere va echki pishloqini o'z ichiga oladigan dramatik, yuqori qirrali kvish an'anaviy pie brisée qobig'idan foydalanadi, u tezda oziq-ovqat protsessorida bir nechta shovqin bilan birlashadi va shaklini yaxshi ushlab turadi. Pilsner va murabbo pishirishni talab qiladigan vafli retsepti tekshirishni talab qilmaydi, bu esa uni yosh guruh uchun bajarishga imkon beradi.

“Nima pishirganingizdan qat'i nazar, menimcha, bularning barchasini onalar aytishi mumkin, ‘Bu odamlar meni ham taniydilar, - deydi Rays. “Va muhabbatga to'lganimni his qilish. ”

Meri Chemberlinning olti farzandi, albatta, unga ovqat va muhabbat bag'ishlaydi. Ular onalar kunida yig'ilishganda, ular Karmel oshpazlari uchun o'qituvchi va nafaqadagi oshpaz uchun O'rta er dengizi taomlarini tayyorlaydilar, ular sitsiliyalik Caprese salatidan boshlanib, klassik italyan shirinligi Cassata Siciliana bilan tugaydi. Ha, retseptlar onam ’.

“Bu men uchun qilishlari kerak, - deydi Kamberlin kulib. Mening o'g'lim Marshall bu erda ham yashamaydi, lekin u mening sharafimga Kanzas -Siti shahridagi Parma iI Pollo -ni tayyorlaydi. ”

Ular chuqur ma'noli retseptlar bo'lib, ular oziq-ovqat sanoati sohasida o'tgan o'nlab yillar davomida Fremontning 1990 yilda sotilgunga qadar 17 yil ishlagan "Mission Deli" kompaniyasining egasi va oshpazlik kitobi muallifi sifatida Chamberlinning o'nlab yillar mobaynida to'plangan. . (Parma il Pollo, aslida, har yili tug'ilgan kuni uchun so'ragan Marshall Kolemanning sevimlisi va Kamberlin Kanzasga uchib ketadi).

Hamma retseptlarni Chamberlin “ ning yangi oshpazlar kitobida, “ Sayohat qilish kitobida: Dunyo bo'ylab kashf etilgan retseptlar ” (Mary Chamberlin oshpazlik kitoblari, $ 45) da topish mumkin, bu O'rta er dengizi va undan tashqaridagi lazzatlarning gobelenini beradi. Pishirish kitobi spiral bilan bog'langan va ko'rish uchun qulay ochiladi.

Meri Chemberlinning yangi oshpaz kitobi O'rta er dengizi va undan tashqaridagi mamlakatlarni qamrab oladi. (Meri Chemberlinning oshxona kitoblari)

“Har bir bob deyarli sayohat jurnaliga o'xshaydi. Qo'shilish uchun [email protected] elektron pochta manziliga yuboring. Men retseptlar bilan bo'lishishni juda yaxshi ko'raman. ”

Onalar kunida, onasi singari, oshpazlik maktabida o'qigan o'g'li Vik Koleman, 1980 -yillarda Gretsiyada yashagan champerlinli Taverna taomining klassik taomlari bo'lgan "Chamberlin" ning yunon limonli tovuqini tayyorlaydi. Ammo u Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlariga qaytguncha retsepti olmadi.

Chikagodagi Papagus restoranining ofitsianti Olga bilan uchrashmagunimcha, men mukammal retseptni topa olmadim, - deydi Chemberlin. “U dedi: ‘Agar men sizga o'z oilam retseptini bersam, siz hech narsani o'zgartira olmaysiz. Biz qozon atrofida to'planib, oregano va limon lazzatlarini o'rganamiz. ”

Chamberlin ’ ning qizi Debora Karpenter, u bilan Mission Deli'da ishlagan, Cassata Siciliana qiladi. Likyorlar bilan namlangan, keyin rikotta pishloq va shakarlangan meva bilan qoplangan an'anaviy dumaloq shimgichli pirojnoe o'rniga, u onasining halqa-qolipga moslashuvidan foydalanadi, bu esa ko'plab muzqaymoq, qaymoq, kek yoki ladyfingerlarni talab qiladi. sheri yoki konyak.


Yashil loviya qanday tozalanadi

Yashil loviya boshqa retseptlarga kiritilishi mumkin, uni boshqa usulda pishirish mumkin (masalan, qovurish va#xE9ing) yoki yangi yashil loviya muzlatish jarayonini boshlash uchun.  

  • Katta idishga suv quying. Bir kilogramm yashil loviya uchun 1 gallon suvdan foydalaning.
  • Katta idishni muzli suv bilan to'ldiring.
  • Partiyalarda ishlayotganda, yashil fasolni qaynoq suvga ehtiyotkorlik bilan tushiring.
  • Kichik loviya 2 daqiqa, o'rta loviya 3 daqiqa, katta loviya 4 daqiqa qaynatiladi.
  • Fasolni muzli suvga botirib tezda sovutib oling.
  • Ular soviganidan so'ng, dukkaklarni to'kib tashlang.

Tarkibi

Italiya oshxonasi asrlar davomida rivojlangan. Italiya deb nomlanuvchi mamlakat 19 -asrgacha birlashmagan bo'lsa -da, oshxona miloddan avvalgi IV asrga borib taqaladigan ildizlarga ega bo'lishi mumkin. Miloddan avvalgi I asrga tegishli bo'lgan ovqat kitobidan (Apicius) ko'rib turganimizdek, o'sha paytda oziq -ovqat va madaniyat juda muhim edi. [14] Asrlar mobaynida qo'shni hududlar, zabt etuvchilar, taniqli oshpazlar, siyosiy to'ntarishlar va Yangi Dunyoning kashf etilishi uning rivojlanishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Italiya oshxonasi Rim imperiyasi qulaganidan keyin shakllana boshladi, chunki turli shaharlar o'z an'analarini shakllantira boshladilar. Non va makaronning har xil turlari tayyorlandi, pishirish texnikasi va tayyorlashda turlicha bo'lgan.

Mamlakat uzoq vaqt bo'linib ketdi va Ispaniya, Frantsiya va Markaziy Evropa kabi atrofdagi davlatlarning ta'siri ostida qoldi. Bu va savdo yoki Ipak yo'lidagi joylashuvi Osiyoga boradigan yo'llar bilan maxsus taomlarning mahalliy rivojlanishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Iqlim sharoitlari va dengizga yaqinligi tufayli, har bir asosiy oziq -ovqat va ziravorlar har bir mintaqada mavjud edi. Mintaqaviy oshxonani Italiyaning ba'zi yirik shaharlari namoyish etadi. Masalan, Milan (Italiyaning shimolida) risottos, Trieste (Italiyaning shimoli -sharqida) ko'p madaniyatli taomlar bilan, Bolonya (mamlakatning markaziy/o'rtasi) tortellini bilan mashhur, Neapol (janubda) mashhur. pizza uchun. [15] Yaxshi misol-bu mashhur spagetti, ular Afrikadan Sitsiliyaga, keyin esa Neapolga tarqalgan deb ishoniladi. [16] [17]

Antik davr tahriri

Birinchi taniqli italyan taomlari yozuvchisi miloddan avvalgi IV asrda sirakuzalik Arxestrat ismli yunon sitsiliyalik edi. U "eng sifatli va mavsumiy" ingredientlardan foydalanish haqida gapirgan she'r yozdi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, lazzatlar ziravorlar, o'tlar yoki boshqa ziravorlar bilan maskalanmasligi kerak. U baliqni oddiy tayyorlashga katta ahamiyat bergan. [18]

Oddiylikdan voz kechildi va uning o'rnini Rim imperiyasi rivojlanib borishi bilan gastronomiya madaniyati egalladi. Vaqtiga qadar Qayta kokinariya eramizning I asrida nashr etilgan, unda ziravorlar va o'tlardan qattiq foydalanishni talab qiladigan 470 ta retsept mavjud. Rimliklar yunon novvoylarini non va Sitsiliyadan pishloq ishlab chiqarish uchun ishlatganlar, chunki sitsiliyaliklar eng yaxshi pishloq ishlab chiqaruvchi sifatida tanilgan. Rimliklar echki boqish uchun boqishgan, artishok va piyoz etishtirishgan. [18]

O'rta asrlarni tahrirlash

Rim va Afinaning oshpazlik an'analari bilan, Sitsiliyada oshxona ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, ba'zilar uni birinchi haqiqiy italyan oshxonasi deb bilishadi. [ iqtibos kerak ] 9 -asrda arablar Sitsiliyaga bostirib kirib, ismaloq, bodom va guruchni kiritdilar. [19] 12 -asr davomida Norman shohi Sitsiliyani o'rganib chiqdi va odamlarni un va suvdan uzun iplar yasashini ko'rdi. atriya, oxir -oqibat aylandi uchlik, Italiya janubida spagetti uchun hali ham ishlatilgan atama. [20] Normanslar hamon mashhur bo'lib qolgan güveç, tuz cod (baccalà) va chorva baliqlarini taqdim etishdi. [21]

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini saqlash kimyoviy yoki fizik edi, chunki muzlatgich yo'q edi. Go'sht va baliq dudlangan, quritilgan yoki muz ustida saqlangan. Brin va tuzdan seld kabi narsalarni tuzlash va cho'chqa go'shtini davolash uchun ishlatilgan. Ildizli sabzavotlar qovurilganidan keyin sho'r suvda saqlanadi. Boshqa saqlash vositalariga yog ', sirka yoki go'shtni qotib qolgan yog'ga botirish kiradi. Meva saqlash uchun aroq, asal va shakar ishlatilgan. [22]

Italiyaning shimoliy hududlari german va rim madaniyatining aralashmasini ko'rsatadi, janub esa arablarning ta'sirini aks ettiradi [19], chunki O'rta er dengizi oshxonasi arab savdosi bilan tarqalgan. [23] Italiya taomlari haqidagi eng qadimgi kitob 13 -asrdir Liber de kokina Neapolda yozilgan. Idishlarga "Rim uslubidagi" karam kiradi (usorum romanorum), reklama kampaniyasi ular "Kampaniya uslubida" tayyorlangan "mayda barglar", Marca di Trevisio dan tayyorlangan loviya taomidir. torta, londardicum kompozit ular bugungi kunda tayyorlangan taomlarga o'xshaydi. XIV asrga oid yana ikkita kitobda Rim uchun retseptlar mavjud pastello, Lazanya pirogi va Sardiniya yoki Chiogjiya tuzidan foydalanishga chaqiring. [24]

XV asrda Maestro Martino Vatikandagi Akviliya Patriarxining oshpazi edi. Uning Libro de arte coquinaria yanada oqlangan va oqlangan oshxonani tasvirlaydi. Uning kitobida retsepti bor Maccaroni Siciliani, xamirni quyoshda quritish uchun ingichka temir tayoqqa o'rash orqali qilingan. Makaron fors ta'sirini aks ettiruvchi za'faron bilan xushbo'y kaponli idishda pishirilgan. Martinoning yangi o'tlar foydasiga ortiqcha ziravorlardan voz kechishi alohida e'tiborga loyiqdir. [21] Rim retseptlari o'z ichiga oladi koptok (havoda quritilgan salam) va karamdan tayyorlangan idishlar. Uning Florensiya taomlari tuxumni o'z ichiga oladi Boloniya tortasi, Siena tortasi va Genuya retseptlari piperata (shirinliklar), makaron, qovoq, qo'ziqorin va ismaloqli pirog piyoz bilan. [25]

Martinoning matni 1475 yilda Venetsiyada bosilgan Bartolomeo Platinaning kitobiga kiritilgan Vo valutudin va halollik ("Halol zavq va salomatlik to'g'risida"). Platina Martinoning "Libro" sini mintaqaviy kontekstga qo'yadi, Maggiore ko'lidan perch, Garda ko'lidan sardina, Addaning tovuqlari, Paduadan tovuqlar, Bolonya va Picenodan zaytun, Ravennadan turbot, Trasimeno ko'lidan qizil, Viterbodan sabzi, bas haqida yozadi. Tiberdan, roviglioni va Albano ko'lidan shad, Rietidan salyangozlar, Tuskolodan anjir, Narnidan uzum, Kassinodan yog ', Neapoldan apelsin va Kampaniyadan ilonlar. Lombardiya va Kampaniya donlari Sitsiliya va Tarantodan asal sifatida qayd etilgan. Kitobda Liguriya qirg'og'idan sharob, Toskana va San -Severinodan yunon, Toskana va Picenodan Trebbiano ham tilga olingan. [26]

Dastlabki zamonaviy davrni tahrirlash

Oshxonaning markazida Florensiya, Rim, Venetsiya va Ferrara sudlari bor edi. Ippolito d'Este boshqaruvchisi Kristoforo di Messisbugo nashr etilgan Banchetti kompozitsiyasi di Vivande 1549 yilda Messisbugo pirog va tort uchun retseptlar beradi (har xil plomba bilan 124 ta retseptni o'z ichiga oladi). Ish Sharq ziravorlari va shakardan foydalanishga urg'u beradi. [27]

1570 yilda Papa Pius Vning shaxsiy oshpazi Bartolomeo Skappi o'z yozuvini yozdi Opera besh jildda, o'sha davrning italyan oshpazligi haqida keng tasavvur beradi. U 1000 dan ortiq retseptlarni o'z ichiga oladi, ular orasida ziyofatlar haqida ma'lumotlar, shu jumladan displeylar va menyular, oshxona va stol anjomlari tasvirlari. Bu kitob qirollik saroylari uchun yozilgan kitoblarning ko'pchiligidan farqli o'laroq, uy hayvonlari va hovli qushlarini o'yindan ko'ra afzal ko'radi.

Retseptlarga til, bosh va yelka kabi go'shtni kamroq kesish kiradi. Uchinchi jildda Lentda baliq uchun retseptlar mavjud. Bu baliq retseptlari oddiy, shu jumladan brakonerlik, qovurish, panjara qilish va marinadlanganidan keyin qovurish.

Baliq ovlash kerak bo'lgan mavsum va joylarga alohida e'tibor qaratiladi. Yakuniy jildga pirog, tort, pirog va shirin neapolitan pitssa retsepti kiradi (hozirgi mazali versiya emas, chunki pomidor Italiyaga hali kiritilmagan edi). Biroq, Yangi Dunyodan makkajo'xori (makkajo'xori) va kurka kabi narsalar kiradi. [28]

17 -asrning birinchi o'n yilligida Jakomo Kastelvetro yozgan Breve Racconto di Tutte le Radici di Tutte l'Herbe va di Tutti i Frutti (Barcha ildizlar, o'tlar va mevalar haqida qisqacha ma'lumot), ingliz tiliga Gillian Rayli tomonidan tarjima qilingan. Asli Modenadan bo'lgan Castelvetro protestant bo'lgani uchun Angliyaga ko'chib o'tgan. Kitobda italiyalik sabzavot va mevalar, ularni tayyorlash bilan birga sanab o'tilgan. U sabzavotlarni ovqatning asosiy qismi sifatida ko'rsatgan, faqat qo'shimchalar sifatida emas. [28] Kastelvetro sabzavotlarni tuzli suvda qaynatib, zaytun moyi, tuz, yangi maydalangan qalampir, limon sharbati, verjus yoki apelsin sharbati bilan iliq yoki sovuq holda berishni ma'qul ko'rdi. Shuningdek, u nam qog'ozga o'ralgan sabzavotlarni ko'mir yoki zaytun yog'i bilan yog'dirib qovurishni taklif qildi. Kastelvetroning kitobi bahorda hop, qishda truffle bilan mavsumlarga ajratilgan bo'lib, unda truffle qidirishda cho'chqalardan foydalanish haqida batafsil ma'lumot berilgan. [28]

1662 yilda Mantua gersogligining oshpazi Bartolomeo Stefani nashr etildi L'Arte di Ben Cucinare (Inglizcha: "Yaxshi pishirish san'ati"). U birinchi bo'lib bo'limni taklif qildi vitto ordinario ("oddiy ovqat"). Kitobda gertsog Charlz tomonidan Shvetsiya qirolichasi Kristina uchun berilgan ziyofat tasvirlangan, har bir mehmon uchun ovqat va stol sozlamalari, shu jumladan pichoq, vilka, qoshiq, shisha, tarelka (tez -tez ishlatiladigan idishlar o'rniga) va peçete. [29]

Bu davrdan qolgan boshqa kitoblar, masalan Galatey Jovanni della Kasa, qanday qilib ayt skalci ("ofitsiantlar") o'z mehmonlariga xizmat ko'rsatishda o'zini boshqarishi kerak. Ofitsiantlar ovqatlanayotganda boshlarini yoki boshqa joylarini qirib tashlamasliklari, tupurmasliklari, hidlamasligi, yo'talishi yoki aksirmasligi kerak. Kitob, shuningdek, ovqatlanuvchilarga ovqat paytida barmoqlarini ishlatmaslikni va peçete bilan terni artmaslikni buyurgan. [29]

Zamonaviy davr tahrir

18 -asrning boshlarida italyan oshpazlik kitoblarida frantsuz oshxonasidan ko'ra italyan oshxonasining mintaqaviyligi ta'kidlangan. O'sha paytda yozilgan kitoblar endi professional oshpazlarga emas, balki burjua uy bekalariga qaratilgan edi. [30] kabi buklet shaklidagi davriy nashrlar Qaymoqli krem (Cremona oshpazi1794 yilda go'sht, baliq va sabzavotlar bo'limlari bilan birga mavsumga qarab ingredientlar ketma -ketligini bering. Asr o'tishi bilan bu kitoblar hajmi, mashhurligi va chastotasi oshdi. [31]

18 -asrda tibbiy matnlar dehqonlarni qayta ishlangan ovqatlar iste'mol qilishdan ogohlantirgan, chunki ular ovqat hazm qilish qobiliyati past va tanalari og'ir ovqatlarni talab qiladi. Ba'zilarning fikricha, dehqonlar yomon ovqatlanishni afzal ko'rishgan, chunki ular yomon ovqatlanishgan. Biroq, ko'plab dehqonlar chirigan oziq -ovqat va mog'orlangan nonni iste'mol qilishlari kerak edi, chunki ular bunga qodir edi. [32]

1779 yilda Marche viloyatidagi Makerata shahridan Antonio Nebbiya yozgan Il Cuoco Maceratese (Makerata oshpazi). Nebbia mahalliy sabzavotlar va makaron, guruch va gnokkining ahamiyatiga e'tibor qaratdi. Qimmatli qog'ozlar uchun u boshqa go'shtlardan ko'ra sabzavot va tovuq go'shtini afzal ko'rdi.

1773 yilda neapolitan Vinchenzo Corrado Il Cuoco Galante (Aqlli oshpaz) v ga alohida urg'u berdiitto pitagorico (vegetarian taomlari). "Pifagor taomlari yangi o'tlar, ildizlar, gullar, mevalar, urug'lar va bizning oziqlanishimiz uchun er yuzida ishlab chiqariladigan narsalardan iborat. Bu shunday deyiladi, chunki Pifagor, faqat ma'lumki, faqat shunday mahsulotlardan foydalangan. Shubha yo'q. oziq -ovqat turi odam uchun tabiiyroq ko'rinadi va go'shtdan foydalanish zararli ». Bu kitob birinchi bo'lib pomidorga o'n uchta retsept bilan markaziy rolni berdi.

Zuppa alli pomidoro Corrado kitobida - hozirgi Toskana pappa al pomodoro -ga o'xshash taom. Corradoning 1798 yilgi nashri frantsuz Antuan-Avgustin Parmentye tomonidan ildiz mevasini muvaffaqiyatli targ'ib qilganidan so'ng "Kartoshka haqidagi risola" ni taqdim etdi. [34] 1790 yilda Franchesko Leonardi o'z kitobida L'Apicio zamonaviy ("Zamonaviy Apicius") Rim davridan boshlab italyan oshxonasining tarixini chizadi va birinchi bo'lib pomidorga asoslangan sosning retseptini beradi. [35]

19 -asrda qirol Viktor Emmanuelning oshpazi Jovanni Vialardi yozgan Zamonaviy oshxona va pirojnoe haqida risola retseptlar bilan "oddiy uy xo'jaliklari uchun mos". Uning ko'plab retseptlari Turin mintaqaviy taomlari uchun, shu jumladan kartoshka uchun o'n ikkita Genuese Cappon Magro. 1829 yilda Il Nuovo Cuoco Milanese Economico Giovanni Felice Luraschi tomonidan milan taomlari, masalan buyrak hamsi, limon va gnocchi alla Romana. Gian Battista va Jovanni Ratto La Cucina Genovese 1871 yilda Liguriya oshxonasiga murojaat qildi. Bu kitobda pestoning birinchi retsepti bor edi. La Cucina Teorico-Pratica Ippolito Cavalcanti tomonidan yozilgan, pomidorli makaron uchun birinchi retsept tasvirlangan. [36]

La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene (Oshpazlik fani va yaxshi ovqatlanish san'ati), birinchi bo'lib 1891 yilda nashr etilgan Pellegrino Artusi tomonidan klassik zamonaviy italyan oshxonasining kanoni sifatida keng e'tirof etilgan va u hali ham nashrda. Uning retseptlari asosan u yashagan Romagna va Toskanadan kelib chiqadi.

Italiya oshxonasida meva, sabzavot, sos, go'sht va boshqalardan tortib turli xil ingredientlar mavjud. Italiyaning shimolida baliq (cod yoki baccala kabi), kartoshka, guruch, makkajo'xori (makkajo'xori) , kolbasa, cho'chqa go'shti va har xil turdagi pishloqlar eng ko'p uchraydigan ingredientlardir. Pomidorli makaron taomlari butun Italiyada tarqalgan. [37] [38] Italiyaliklar o'zlarining ingredientlarini yangi va nozik ziravorli va xushbo'y hidi bilan yoqtirishadi. [39]

Shimoliy Italiyada to'ldirilgan makaronning ko'p turlari mavjud bo'lsa -da, polenta va risotto bir xil darajada mashhur. [40] Liguriya tarkibiga bir necha turdagi baliq va dengiz maxsulotlari kiradi. Fesleğen (pestoda topilgan), yong'oq va zaytun moyi juda keng tarqalgan. Emiliya-Romanyada oddiy ingredientlarga jambon (prosciutto), kolbasa (kotechino), har xil turdagi salam, truffle, grana, Parmigiano-Reggiano va pomidor (Bolognese sousi yoki ragù) kiradi.

An'anaviy Markaziy Italiya oshxonasida pomidor, har xil go'sht, baliq va pecorino pishloq kabi ingredientlardan foydalaniladi. Toskana shahrida makaron (ayniqsa, pappardelle) an'anaviy ravishda go'shtli sos bilan xizmat qiladi (shu jumladan, o'yin go'shti). Italiyaning janubida pomidor (yangi yoki pomidor sosida pishirilgan), qalampir, zaytun va zaytun moyi, sarimsoq, artishok, apelsin, rikotta pishloq, baqlajon, qovoq, ba'zi baliq turlari (hamsi, sardalya va orkinos) va asirlar muhim ahamiyatga ega. mahalliy oshxonaning tarkibiy qismlari.

Italiya oshxonasi turli xil makaronlardan foydalanish bilan ham mashhur (va yaxshi tanilgan). Makaron har xil uzunlik, kenglik va shakldagi makaronni o'z ichiga oladi. Ko'pchilik makaronlarni shakllari bilan ajratish mumkin - penne, makeroni, spagetti, lingvin, fusilli, lazanya va boshqa ko'plab navlar, masalan, ravioli va tortellini.

Makaron so'zi, shuningdek, makaron mahsulotlari asosiy tarkibiy qism bo'lgan idishlarga nisbatan ishlatiladi. Odatda sos bilan xizmat qiladi. Hech bo'lmaganda mahalliy tan olingan nomlar bilan yuzlab makaron shakllari mavjud.

Masalan, spagetti (ingichka tayoqlar), rigatoni (naychalar yoki silindrlar), fusilli (burilishlar) va lazanya (choyshablar). Köfte, gnocchi (kartoshka yoki oshqovoqdan tayyorlangan) va spats kabi makaron kabi, ba'zida makaron hisoblanadi. Ularning ikkalasi ham Italiyaning ba'zi joylarida an'anaviy.

Makaron ikkita asosiy turga bo'linadi: quritilgan va yangi. Tuxumsiz quritilgan makaron ideal sharoitda ikki yilgacha saqlanishi mumkin, yangi makaron esa muzlatgichda bir necha kun saqlanadi. Makaron odatda qaynatish bilan pishiriladi. Italiya qonunlariga ko'ra, quruq makaron (pasta sekka) faqat qattiq bug'doy uni yoki qattiq bug'doy irmikidan tayyorlanishi mumkin va an'anaviy ravishda yangi tuxum turini afzal ko'radigan shimoliy hamkasblariga qaraganda Janubiy Italiyada ko'proq ishlatiladi.

Qattiq un va qattiq irmik sarg'ish rangga ega. Italiya makaronlari an'anaviy tarzda pishiriladi al dente (Italyancha: tishlashga qattiq, juda yumshoq emas degan ma'noni anglatadi). Italiyadan tashqarida quruq makaron ko'pincha boshqa un turlaridan tayyorlanadi, lekin undan yumshoqroq mahsulot olinadi. Qo'llaniladigan don turiga qarab kleykovina va oqsil darajasi o'zgarib turadigan bug'doy uni ko'p turlari mavjud.

Maxsus makaron navlari, shuningdek, qonun hujjatlarida belgilangan unni tayyorlash uchun boshqa don va maydalash usullaridan foydalanishi mumkin. Ba'zi makaron navlari, masalan, pitszokerlar, grechka unidan tayyorlanadi. Yangi makaron tarkibida tuxum bo'lishi mumkin (makaron all'uovo "tuxumli makaron"). Whole wheat pasta has become increasingly popular because of its supposed health benefits over pasta made from refined flour.

Each area has its own specialties, primarily at a regional level, but also at the provincial level. The differences can come from a bordering country (such as France or Austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. [42] Italian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce. [43] [44]

Abruzzo and Molise Edit

Pasta, meat, and vegetables are central to the cuisine of Abruzzo and Molise. Chili peppers (peperoncini) are typical of Abruzzo, where they are called diavoletti ("little devils") for their spicy heat. Due to the long history of shepherding in Abruzzo and Molise, lamb dishes are common. Lamb is often paired with pasta. [45] Mushrooms (usually wild mushrooms), rosemary, and garlic are also extensively used in Abruzzese cuisine.

Best-known is the extra virgin olive oil produced in the local farms on the hills of the region, marked by the quality level DOP and considered one of the best in the country. [46] Renowned wines like Montepulciano DOCG and Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC are considered amongst the world's finest wines. [47] In 2012 a bottle of Trebbiano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane ranked #1 in the top 50 Italian wine award. [48] Centerbe ("Hundred Herbs") is a strong (72% alcohol), spicy herbal liqueur drunk by the locals. Another liqueur is genziana, a soft distillate of gentian roots.

The best-known dish from Abruzzo is arrosticini, little pieces of castrated lamb on a wooden stick and cooked on coals. The chitarra (literally "guitar") is a fine stringed tool that pasta dough is pressed through for cutting. In the province of Teramo, famous local dishes include the virtù soup (made with legumes, vegetables, and pork meat), the timballo (pasta sheets filled with meat, vegetables or rice), and the mazzarelle (lamb intestines filled with garlic, marjoram, lettuce, and various spices). The popularity of saffron, grown in the province of L'Aquila, has waned in recent years. [45] The most famous dish of Molise is cavatelli, a long shaped, handmade maccheroni-type pasta made of flour, semolina, and water, often served with meat sauce, broccoli, or mushrooms. Pizzelle cookies are a common dessert, especially around Christmas.

Apulia Edit

Apulia is a massive food producer: major production includes wheat, tomatoes, zucchini, broccoli, bell peppers, potatoes, spinach, eggplants, cauliflower, fennel, endive, chickpeas, lentils, beans, and cheese (like the traditional caciocavallo cheese). Apulia is also the largest producer of olive oil in Italy. The sea offers abundant fish and seafood that are extensively used in the regional cuisine, especially oysters, and mussels.

Goat and lamb are occasionally used. [49] The region is known for pasta made from durum wheat and traditional pasta dishes featuring orecchiette-type pasta, often served with tomato sauce, potatoes, mussels, or broccoli rabe. Pasta with cherry tomatoes and arugula is also popular. [50]

Regional desserts include zeppola, doughnuts usually topped with powdered sugar and filled with custard, jelly, cannoli-style pastry cream, or a butter-and-honey mixture. For Christmas, Apulians make a very traditional rose-shaped pastry called cartellate. These are fried and dipped in vin cotto, which is either a wine or fig juice reduction.

Basilicata Edit

The cuisine of Basilicata is mostly based on inexpensive ingredients and deeply anchored in rural traditions.

Pork is an integral part of the regional cuisine, often made into sausages or roasted on a spit. Famous dry sausages from the region are lucanica and soppressata. Wild boar, mutton, and lamb are also popular. Pasta sauces are generally based on meats or vegetables. The region produces cheeses like Pecorino di Filiano, Canestrato di Moliterno, Pallone di Gravina, and Paddraccio and olive oils like the Vulture. [51]

The peperone crusco, (or crusco pepper) is a staple of the local cuisine, much to be defined "The red gold of Basilicata". [52] It is consumed as a snack or as a main ingredient for several regional recipes. [53]

Among the traditional dishes are pasta con i peperoni cruschi, pasta served with dried crunchy pepper, bread crumbs and grated cheese [54] lagane e ceci, shuningdek, nomi bilan tanilgan piatto del brigante (brigand's dish), pasta prepared with chick peas and peeled tomatoes [55] tumacë me tulë, tagliatelle-dish of Arbëreshe culture rafanata, a type of omelette with horseradish ciaudedda, a vegetable stew with artichokes, potatoes, broad beans, and pancetta [56] and the baccalà alla lucana, one of the few recipes made with fish. Desserts include taralli dolci, made with sugar glaze and scented with anise and calzoncelli, fried pastries filled with a cream of chestnuts and chocolate.

The most famous wine of the region is the Aglianico del Vulture, others include Matera, Terre dell'Alta Val d'Agri and Grottino di Roccanova. [57]

Basilicata is also known for its mineral waters which are sold widely in Italy. The springs are mostly located in the volcanic basin of the Vulture area. [58]

Calabria Edit

In Calabria, a history of French rule under the House of Anjou and Napoleon, along with Spanish influences, affected the language and culinary skills as seen in the naming of things such as cake, gatò, from the French gateau. Seafood includes swordfish, shrimp, lobster, sea urchin, and squid. Macaroni-type pasta is widely used in regional dishes, often served with goat, beef, or pork sauce and salty rikotta. [59]

Main courses include frìttuli (prepared by boiling pork rind, meat, and trimmings in pork fat), different varieties of spicy sausages (like Nduja and Capicola), goat, and land snails. Melon and watermelon are traditionally served in a chilled fruit salad or wrapped in ham. [60] Calabrian wines include Greco di Bianco, Bivongi, Cirò, Dominici, Lamezia, Melissa, Pollino, Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto, San Vito di Luzzi, Savuto, Scavigna, and Verbicaro.

Calabrese pizza has a Neapolitan-based structure with fresh tomato sauce and a cheese base, but is unique because of its spicy flavor. Some of the ingredients included in a Calabrese pizza are thinly sliced hot soppressata, hot capicola, hot peppers, and fresh mozzarella.

Campania Edit

Campania extensively produces tomatoes, peppers, spring onions, potatoes, artichokes, fennel, lemons, and oranges which all take on the flavor of volcanic soil. The Gulf of Naples offers fish and seafood. Campania is one of the largest producers and consumers of pasta in Italy, especially spaghetti. In the regional cuisine, pasta is prepared in various styles that can feature tomato sauce, cheese, clams, and shellfish. [61]

Spaghetti alla puttanesca is a popular dish made with olives, tomatoes, anchovies, capers, chili peppers, and garlic. The region is well-known also for its mozzarella production (especially from the milk of water buffalo) that's used in a variety of dishes, including parmigiana (shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked). Desserts include struffoli (deep fried balls of dough), rikotta-based pastiera va sfogliatelle, and rum-dipped babà. [61]

Originating in Neapolitan cuisine, pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. [62] Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese (usually mozzarella), and various toppings depending on the culture. Since the original pizza, several other types of pizzas have evolved.

Since Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, its cuisine took much from the culinary traditions of all the Campania region, reaching a balance between dishes based on rural ingredients (pasta, vegetables, cheese) and seafood dishes (fish, crustaceans, mollusks). A vast variety of recipes is influenced by the local aristocratic cuisine, like timballo va Sartù di riso, pasta or rice dishes with very elaborate preparation, while the dishes coming from the popular traditions contain inexpensive but nutritionally healthy ingredients, like pasta with beans and other pasta dishes with vegetables.

Emilia-Romagna Edit

Emilia-Romagna is especially known for its egg and filled pasta made with soft wheat flour. The Romagna subregion is renowned for pasta dishes like cappelletti, garganelli, strozzapreti, sfoglia lorda, va tortelli alla lastra [ it] as well as cheeses such as squacquerone [ it] , Piadina snacks are also a specialty of the subregion.

Bologna and Modena are notable for pasta dishes like tortellini, lasagne, gramigna, and tagliatelle which are found also in many other parts of the region in different declinations, while Ferrara is known for cappellacci di zucca, pumpkin-filled dumplings, and Piacenza for Pisarei e faśö, wheat gnocchi with beans and lard. The celebrated balsamic vinegar is made only in the Emilian cities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, following legally binding traditional procedures. [63]

In the Emilia subregion, except Piacenza which is heavily influenced by the cuisines of Lombardy, rice is eaten to a lesser extent than the rest of northern Italy. Polenta, a maize-based side dish, is common in both Emilia and Romagna.

Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is produced in Reggio Emilia (also known for erbazzone, a kind of egg and vegetables quiche), Parma, Modena, and Bologna and is often used in cooking. Grana Padano cheese is produced in Piacenza.

Although the Adriatic coast is a major fishing area (well known for its eels and clams harvested in the Comacchio lagoon), the region is more famous for its meat products, especially pork-based, that include cold cuts such as Parma's prosciutto, culatello, va Salame Felino [ it] Piacenza's pancetta, coppa, and salami Bologna's mortadella va salame rosa Zampone Modena [ it] , cotechino, va cappello del prete [ it] and Ferrara's salama da sugo [ it] . Piacenza is also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat. Regional desserts include zuppa inglese (custard-based dessert made with sponge cake and Alchermes liqueur),panpepato (Christmas cake made with pepper, chocolate, spices, and almonds), tenerina (butter and chocolate cake) and torta degli addobbi (rice and milk cake).

Friuli-Venezia Giulia Edit

Friuli-Venezia Giulia conserved, in its cuisine, the historical links with Austria-Hungary. Udine and Pordenone, in the western part of Friuli, are known for their traditional San Daniele del Friuli ham, Montasio cheese, and Frico cheese dish. Other typical dishes are pitina (meatballs made of smoked meats), game, and various types of Nyokki va polenta.

The majority of the eastern regional dishes are heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, Slovene and Croatian cuisines: typical dishes include Istrian stew (soup of beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, and spare ribs), Vienna sausages, goulash, ćevapi, apple strudel, gugelhupf. Pork can be spicy and is often prepared over an open hearth called a fogolar. Collio Goriziano, Friuli Isonzo, Colli Orientali del Friuli, and Ramandolo are well-known denominazione di origine controllata regional wines.

But the seafood from the Adriatic is also used in this area. While the tuna fishing has declined, the anchovies from the Gulf of Trieste off Barcola (in the local dialect: "Sardoni barcolani") are a special and sought-after delicacy. [64] [65] [66]

Liguria Edit

Liguria is known for herbs and vegetables (as well as seafood) in its cuisine. Savory pies are popular, mixing greens and artichokes along with cheeses, milk curds, and eggs. Onions and olive oil are used. Because of a lack of land suitable for wheat, the Ligurians use chickpeas in farinata and polenta-like panissa. The former is served plain or topped with onions, artichokes, sausage, cheese or young anchovies. [67] Farinata is typically cooked in a wood-fired oven, similar to southern pizzas. Furthermore, fresh fish features heavily in Ligurian cuisine. Baccala, or salted cod, features prominently as a source of protein in coastal regions. It is traditionally prepared in a soup.

Hilly districts use chestnuts as a source of carbohydrates. Ligurian pastas include corzetti, typically stamped with traditional designs, from the Polcevera valley pansoti [ it] , a triangular shaped ravioli filled with vegetables piccagge, pasta ribbons made with a small amount of egg and served with artichoke sauce or pesto sauce trenette, made from whole wheat flour cut into long strips and served with pesto boiled beans and potatoes and trofie, a Ligurian Nyokki made from whole grain flour and boiled potatoes, made into a spiral shape and often tossed in pesto. [67] Many Ligurians emigrated to Argentina in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, influencing the cuisine of the country (which was otherwise dominated by meat and dairy products that the narrow Ligurian hinterland would have not allowed). Pesto, sauce made from basil and other herbs, is uniquely Ligurian, and features prominently among Ligurian pastas.

Lazio Edit

Pasta dishes based on the use of guanciale (unsmoked bacon prepared with pig's jowl or cheeks) are often found in Lazio, such as pasta alla carbonara and pasta all'amatriciana. Another pasta dish of the region is arrabbiata, with spicy tomato sauce. The regional cuisine widely use offal, resulting in dishes like the entrail-based rigatoni bilan pajata sauce and coda alla vaccinara. [68]

Iconic of Lazio is cheese made from ewes' milk (Pecorino Romano), porchetta (savory, fatty, and moist boneless pork roast) and Frascati white wine. The influence of the ancient Jewish community can be noticed in the Roman cuisine's traditional carciofi alla giudia. [68]

Lombardy Edit

The regional cuisine of Lombardy is heavily based upon ingredients like maize, rice, beef, pork, butter, and lard. Rice dishes are very popular in this region, often found in soups as well as risotto. The best-known version is risotto alla milanese [ it] , flavoured with saffron. Due to its characteristic yellow color, it is often called risotto giallo. The dish is sometimes served with ossobuco (cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth). [69]

Other regional specialities include cotoletta alla milanese (a fried breaded cutlet of veal similar to Wiener schnitzel, but cooked "bone-in"), cassoeula (a typically winter dish prepared with cabbage and pork), Mostarda (rich condiment made with candied fruit and a mustard flavoured syrup), Valtellina's bresaola (air-dried salted beef), pizzoccheri (a flat ribbon pasta made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour cooked along with greens, cubed potatoes, and layered with pieces of Valtellina Casera cheese), casoncelli (a kind of stuffed pasta, usually garnished with melted butter and sage, typical of Brescia) and tortelli di zucca [ it] (a type of ravioli with pumpkin filling, usually garnished with melted butter and sage or tomato). [70]

Regional cheeses include Grana Padano, Gorgonzola, Crescenza, Robiola, and Taleggio (the plains of central and southern Lombardy allow intensive cattle farming). Polenta is common across the region. Regional desserts include the famous panetton (soft sweet bread with raisins and candied citron and orange chunks).

Marche Edit

On the coast of Marche, fish and seafood are produced. Inland, wild and domestic pigs are used for sausages and hams. These hams are not thinly sliced, but cut into bite-sized chunks. Suckling pig, chicken, and fish are often stuffed with rosemary or fennel fronds and garlic before being roasted or placed on the spit. [71]

Ascoli, Marche's southernmost province, is well known for olive ascolane [ it] , (stoned olives stuffed with several minced meats, egg, and Parmesan, then fried). [72] Another well-known Marche product are the Maccheroncini di Campofilone [ it] , from little town of Campofilone, a kind of hand-made pasta made only of hard grain flour and eggs, cut so thin that melts in one's mouth.

Piedmont Edit

Between the Alps and the Po valley, featuring a large number of different ecosystems, the Piedmont region offers the most refined and varied cuisine of the Italian peninsula. As a point of union between traditional Italian and French cuisine, Piedmont is the Italian region with the largest number of cheeses with protected geographical status and wines under DOC. It is also the region where both the Slow Food association and the most prestigious school of Italian cooking, the University of Gastronomic Sciences, were founded. [73]

Piedmont is a region where gathering nuts, mushrooms, and cardoons, as well as hunting and fishing, are commonplace. Truffles, garlic, seasonal vegetables, cheese, and rice feature in the cuisine. Wines from the Nebbiolo grape such as Barolo and Barbaresco are produced as well as wines from the Barbera grape, fine sparkling wines, and the sweet, lightly sparkling, Moscato d'Asti. The region is also famous for its Vermouth and Ratafia production. [73]

Castelmagno is a prized cheese of the region. Piedmont is also famous for the quality of its Carrù beef (particularly bue grasso, "fat ox"), hence the tradition of eating raw meat seasoned with garlic oil, lemon, and salt carpaccio Brasato al vino, wine stew made from marinated beef and boiled beef served with various sauces. [73]

The food most typical of the Piedmont tradition are the traditional agnolotti (pasta folded over with roast beef and vegetable stuffing), paniscia (a typical dish of Novara, a kind of risotto with Arborio rice or Maratelli rice, the typical kind of Saluggia beans, onion, Barbera wine, lard, salami, season vegetables, salt and pepper), taglierini (thinner version of tagliatelle), bagna cauda (sauce of garlic, anchovies, olive oil, and butter), and bicerin (hot drink made of coffee, chocolate, and whole milk). Piedmont is one of the Italian capitals of pastry and chocolate in particular, with products like Nutella, gianduiottova marron glacé that are famous worldwide. [73]

Sardinia Edit

Suckling pig and wild boar are roasted on the spit or boiled in stews of beans and vegetables, thickened with bread. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are widely used in the regional cuisine. Sardinia also has many special types of bread, made dry, which keeps longer than high-moisture breads. [74]

Also baked are carasau non civraxu [ it] , coccoi a pitzus [ it] , a highly decorative bread, and pistocu [ it] made with flour and water only, originally meant for herders, but often served at home with tomatoes, basil, oregano, garlic, and a strong cheese. Rock lobster, scampi, squid, tuna, and sardines are the predominant seafoods. [74]

Casu marzu is a very strong cheese produced in Sardinia, but is of questionable legality due to hygiene concerns. [75]

Sicily Edit

Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia. Although its cuisine undoubtedly has a predominantly Italian base, Sicilian food also has Spanish, Greek and Arab influences. Dionysus is said to have introduced wine to the region: a trace of historical influence from Ancient Greece. [76]

The ancient Romans introduced lavish dishes based on goose. The Byzantines favored sweet and sour flavors and the Arabs brought sugar, citrus, rice, spinach, and saffron. The Normans and Hohenstaufens had a fondness for meat dishes. The Spanish introduced items from the New World including chocolate, maize, turkey, and tomatoes. [76]

Much of the island's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables such as eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes, as well as fish such as tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, and swordfish. In Trapani, in the extreme western corner of the island, North African influences are clear in the use of various couscous based dishes, usually combined with fish. [77] Mint is used extensively in cooking unlike the rest of Italy.

Traditional specialties from Sicily include arancini (a form of deep-fried rice croquettes), pasta alla Norma, caponata, pani ca meusa, and a host of desserts and sweets such as cannoli, granita, and cassata. [78]

Typical of Sicily is Marsala, a red, fortified wine similar to Port and largely exported. [79] [80]

Trentino-Alto Adige Edit

Before the Council of Trent in the middle of the 16th century, the region was known for the simplicity of its peasant cuisine. When the prelates of the Catholic Church established there, they brought the art of fine cooking with them. Later, also influences from Venice and the Austrian Habsburg Empire came in. [81]

The Trentino subregion produces various types of sausages, polenta, yogurt, cheese, potato cake, funnel cake, and freshwater fish. In the Südtirol (Alto Adige) subregion, due to the German-speaking majority population, strong Austrian and Slavic influences prevail. The most renowned local product is traditional speck juniper-flavored ham which, as Speck Alto Adige, is regulated by the European Union under the protected geographical indication (PGI) status. Goulash, knödel, apple strudel, kaiserschmarrn, krapfen, rösti, spätzle, and rye bread are regular dishes, along with potatoes, dumpling, homemade sauerkraut, and lard. [81] The territory of Bolzano is also reputed for its Müller-Thurgau white wines.


Silk Squash

Silk squash, also called Chinese okra and angled luffa, is a long thin squash with sharp ridges. Only immature silk squash are eaten, as older silk squash have a bitter taste. Silk squash can be stuffed with pork and steamed however, it is more commonly stir-fried or deep-fried. Feel free to substitute silk squash in recipes calling for cooked zucchini or okra, like in a stir-fried okra recipe, and to use okra as a substitute if silk squash is unavailable.

When buying silk squash, look for young ones that are firm and have unblemished skin. Despite the sharp ridges, silk squash does not need to be peeled before using.


Pomidor

Tomatoes are one of the fundamentals of Italian cuisine even though they have only been used in cooking since the eighteenth century. Italians place tomatoes in two categories for eating: insalatari – tomatoes for eating raw, normally quite acidic, and salsa – usually very ripe tomatoes used for sauces and cooking. Some of the world’s tastiest varieties hail from Italy including Datterini, San Marzano and the cherry, Pachino. Andrea Migliaccio showcases the D.O.P. certified San Marzano tomato in his Passata of San Marzano Tomatoes with Buffalo Ricotta and pesto.


Videoni tomosha qiling: SABZAVOTLAR-1. Русча-узбекча лугат. ОВОЩИ-1. uzrustili (Oktyabr 2021).